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___What is a Stroke?
A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a blood vessel in the brain is blocked or a blood vessel breaks causing brain cells in the blood vessel territory to die. Brain cells do not regenerate. The problems experienced after a stroke like the inability to move one side of the body like before, numbness on one side of the body, speech or visual problems are usually a result of brain cells that have died due to stroke. Persons who have had one stroke are at risk of having another stroke. It is important that you practice secondary prevention of stroke now, and this Stroke education sheet will help you and your family do just that. Please be sure to ask your doctor any questions about this information or any other questions about your health.
___What to look for: Warning signs and symptoms of stroke
___What to do if you’re having symptoms: Call your doctor
___What you should know: Personal risk factors for stroke
What risk factors for stroke can’t be changed
What stroke risk factors can be changed, treated or controlled?
___ Follow-up medical care after you leave the hospital
Deep Vein Thrombosis
What is Deep Vein Thrombosis?
The blood supply of the leg is transported by arteries and veins. The arteries carry blood from the heart to the limbs; veins carry blood back to the heart. The leg contains superficial veins, which are close to the surface, and deep veins, which lie much deeper in the leg. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a condition in which a blood clot (a blockage) forms in a deep vein. While these clots most commonly occur in the veins of the leg (the calf or thigh), they can also develop in other parts of the body.
DVT can be very dangerous and is considered a medical emergency. If the clot (also known as a thrombus) breaks loose and travels through the bloodstream, it can lodge in the lung. This blockage in the lung, called a pulmonary embolism, can make it difficult to breathe and may even cause death. Blood clots in the thigh are more likely to cause a pulmonary embolism than those in the calf.
Causes of DVT
Many factors can contribute to the formation of a DVT. The more risk factors a person has, the greater their risk of having a DVT. However, even people without these risk factors can form a DVT.
Signs and Symptoms of DVT in the Leg
Some people with DVT in the leg have either no warning signs at all or very vague symptoms. If any of the following warning signs or symptoms are present, it is important to see a doctor for evaluation:
DVT can be difficult to diagnose, especially if the patient has no symptoms. Diagnosis is also challenging because of the similarities between symptoms of DVT and those of other conditions such as a pulled muscle, an infection, a clot in a superficial vein (thrombophlebitis), a fracture, and arthritis.
If DVT is suspected, the doctor will immediately send the patient to a vascular laboratory or a hospital for testing, which may include a blood test, Doppler ultrasound, venogram, MRI, or angiogram.
Treatment of DVT
If tests indicate a clot is present, the doctor will make a recommendation regarding treatment. Depending on the location of the clot, the patient may need hospitalization. Medical or surgical care will be managed by a team of physicians which may include a primary care physician, internist, vascular (blood vessel) surgeon, or hematologist (blood disease specialist).
Treatment may include:
Complications of DVT
An early and extremely serious complication of DVT is a pulmonary embolism. A pulmonary embolism develops if the clot breaks loose and travels to the lung. Symptoms of a pulmonary embolism include:
A long-term consequence of DVT is damage to the vein from the clot. This damage often results in persistent swelling, pain and discoloration of the leg.
For those who have risk factors for DVT, these strategies may reduce the likelihood of developing a blood clot:
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